Goa, one of the smallest states in India, is surrounded by the states of Maharashtra in the north and Karnataka in the east and south and the Arabian Sea in the west. It is the smallest state in India in terms of area and the fourth smallest in terms of population. It has the highest per capita GDP, which is two and a half times more than the country.
The state has an area of 3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi). It lies between latitudes 14 ° 53’54 “N and 15 ° 40’00” N and longitudes 73 ° 40’33 “E and 74 ° 20’13” E.
The state is part of the coastal region known as Konkan, an escarpment extending up to the Western Ghats range of mountains, separating it from the Deccan plateau. The highest point is of Sonsogor, whose height is 1,167 meters (3,829 ft). It has a seashore of 160 km (99 mi).
The state is divided into two districts: South Goa and North Goa. Panaji is the capital of the state, while Vasco da Gama is its largest city. The historical city of Margao still spectacles the cultural impact of the Portuguese, who first landed as traders in the early 16th era and occupied it shortly thereafter.
History of Goa
Golden Goa, Knowing the bygone era as Gomanchala, Gopakapattam, Gopakapuri, Govarashtra ect., abounds in a rich heritage. In the 1st century in the Cristian era, it was a part of the Satvahana Empire followed by the Kadambas, The Rashtrakutas of Malkhed, the Chalukyas and Silharas, the empire of Yadavas by the end of the 14th century was displaced by the empire Khilji of Delhi and thus the Muslim ruler came here.
After the discovery of the sear out to India by Vasco-Da Gama in 1498, many Portuguese expeditions came to India.In1510, Alfonso de Albuquerque with the help of the Emperor of Vijayanagar attacked and captured Goa. The Portuguese continued to rule over the territory except for an interlude the later half of the 17th century when Shivaji conquered a few areas around Goa.
Even after Indian independence, it continued to be in the hands of the Portuguese. However, they could not fulfill the aspirations of Goan people and ultimately on December 19th, 1961, after 451 years, it was liberated and made a composite Union Territory with Daman and Diu, on 30th May 1987, Goa conferred statehood, separating it from 25 years old union territory of Goa, Daman & Diu.
Population and Language
The state has a population of 1.459 million inhabitants as of 2011cences, making it the fourth-smallest state in India. There are 394 people for every square kilometer of land, which is more than the national average of 382 per km2. The sex ratio in Goa state ranges from 973 females to 1,000 males.
The Goan population is mainly a mixture of Christians and Hindus. Goa has a notable Muslim population, as well as small communities of Jains, Sikhs, and practitioners of local religions.
The native language “Konkani” is spoken by about 66.11% of the people in the state. Other linguistic minorities in the state are Marathi (10.89%), Hindi (10.29%), Kannada (4.66%) and Urdu (2.83%) as per the 2011 census.
Government of Goa
It has a unicameral legislature, and it has a Legislative Assembly of 40 members, headed by a speaker. The Chief Minister is the head of the executive, which is formed by a majority-elected party or coalition in the legislature. The Governor, appointed by the President of India, is the head of the state.
The state comes under the Bombay High Court and there is a bench in Panaji. Unlike other states, which follow the British Indian model of civil laws created for individual religions, the Portuguese Goa Civil Code, a similar code based on the Napoleonic Code, is retained here.
The state has two seats in the Parliament of India, one representing each district, and one seat in the Rajya Sabha.
Goa, in the tropical region and near the Arabian Sea, has a warm and humid climate for most of the year. The month of May is generally the warmest, with daytime temperatures exceeding 35 ° C (95 ° F) with high humidity. The Southwest monsoon runs between June and September. The state receives about 115 inches (3,000 mm) of rainfall annually, the highest during the monsoon season.
Tourism in Goa
Goa is visited by a large number of global and domestic tourists every year for its white-sand beaches, nightlife, places of devotion and world heritage-listed architecture. It has rich flora and fauna, due to its location on the Western Ghats range, a biodiversity hotspot.
One of the biggest tourist attractions in Goa is the water game. Beaches such as Baga and Calangut offer jet-skiing, parasailing, banana boat rides, water scooter rides and more. Patnam Beach in Palolem ranked third among CNN Travel’s top 20 beaches in Asia. The state of Goa is famous for its tremendous beaches, churches, and temples. Bom Jesus Cathedral, Fort Aguada and a new wax museum on Indian history, culture and legacy are other traveler destinations in Old Goa.
Goan food can be divided into Catholic and Hindu cuisine, each of which shows very different tastes, features and cooking styles. Pork dishes such as Vindaloo, Xacuti, chouriço, and Sorpotel are cooked for major events among Catholic people. An exotic Goan vegetable stew, known as khatkhat, is a very popular dish among Hindu and Christian during festivals. The khatkhat contains at least five vegetables, fresh coconuts and special Goan spices that are covered in fragrances.
Educational and training institutions range from primary schools to technical and university institutions. One of India’s premier post-secondary institutions, Goa University (1985) is located in Bambolim near Panaji. The National Institute of Oceanography, famous for its oceanographic research and for its missions to Antarctica, is situated in Dona Paula on the far western tip of the state.
This small state is well connected to the rest of India and other major cities in the world by road, rail, sea, and air. Panaji has a large bus terminal which is adjacent to the station on the Konkan Railway. Completed in 1989, the Konkan Railway runs along India’s western coast from west-central Maharashtra to southern Karnataka, where it links with the country’s southern railway. Another rail line links the state’s primary port at Marmagao with the country’s western rail system via Castle Rock (in Karnataka) in the Western Ghats. Dabolim has an international airport located near Panaji.